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  author = {Marquis, Emmanuelle A. and Dunand, David C.},
  title = {Model for creep threshold stress in precipitation-strengthened alloys with coherent particles},
  journal = {Scripta Materialia},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {47},
  number = {8},
  pages = {503--508},
  abstract = {The general climb model for creep threshold
    stress for dislocations interacting with incoherent particles is
    modified for the case of coherent precipitates, by taking into account
    elastic interactions between matrix dislocations and particles due to
    particle/matrix stiffness and lattice mismatches. The model is in
    qualitative agreement with experimental data for the Al-Sc system.},
  url = {},

  author = {Fuller, Christian B. and Krause, Alber R. and Dunand, David C. and Seidman, David N.},
  title = {Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a 5754 Aluminum Alloy Modified by Sc and Zr Additions},
  journal = {Materials Science and Engineering A},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {338},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {8--16},
  abstract = {The effects of various heat treatments upon the microstructure and
    mechanical properties of a rolled 5754 aluminum alloy modified with
    0.23~wt.\% Sc and 0.22 wt.\% Zr were investigated. Grain size, as well as
    precipitate size, type, and morphology were observed by optical and
    transmission electron microscopies. Two populations of the Al3Sc1-xZrx phase 
    were present: (i) large incoherent precipitates formed during solidification 
    and hot-rolling; and (ii) fine coherent precipitates formed from secondary
    precipitation, which improved alloy strength, as shown by hardness, tensile,
    and fatigue measurements. Aging, however, also produced two types of
    grain-boundary precipitates, Al6Mn and [beta]-Al3Mg2, which contributed to
    poorer fatigue behavior and reduced ductility.},
  url = {},

  author = {R{\"{o}}sler, J. and Arzt, E.},
  title = {A New Model-Based Creep Equation for Dispersion Strengthened Materials},
  journal = {Acta Metallurgica et Materialia},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {38},
  number = {4},
  pages = {671--683},

  chapter = {Plastic deformation of two-phase alloys containing small nondeformable particles},
  pages = {189--216},
  title = {The physics and strength of plasticity},
  publisher = {MIT Press},
  year = {1969},
  editor = {A. Argon},
  author = {Hirsch, P.B. and Humphreys, F.J.},
  address = {Cambridge, MA},
  abstract = {The mechanism of plastic deformation of two-phase
    alloys containing small nondeformable particles in a ductile matrix is
    discussed. The effect of cross-slip on the Orowan bypass mechanism is
    considered; the experimentally observed microstructure and its variation
    with alloy composition is interpreted in terms of the cross-slip
    mechanism. The factors controlling the yield stress of the undeformed
    material, and the flow stress of the work-hardened crystals, are
    reviewed. Work hardening for small strains is considered to be due to the
    interaction between screw dislocations and prismatic loops with the primary
    Burgers vector to form helices. A theory is developed applicable to
    very small strains. Possible mechanisms to account for the strong
    recovery effect reported for copper-base alloys at and above room
    temperature are considered. Above about 100 degrees C the density of
    loops and the work-hardening rates are very small. This effect is
    interpreted in terms of a pipe-diffusion mechanism. [Book Chapter]},
  journal = {Strength and plasticity, Physics of},
  url = {},

  author = {Arntz, WE
    and Gutt, J.
    and Klages, M.},
  editor = {Battaglia, B.
    and Valencia, J.
    and Walton, DWH},
  chapter = {Antarctic marine biodiversity: an overview},
  title = {Antarctic Communities: Species, Structure and Survival},
  year = {1997},
  publisher = {Cambridge University Press (UK)},
  address = {Cambridge},
  pages = {3--14},
  keywords = {Species diversity},
  keywords = {Antarctic zone},
  keywords = {Community composition},
  keywords = {Taxonomy},
  keywords = {Geographical distribution},
  abstract = {The unique Antarctic marine environment, its evolutionary history,
    its biotic peculiarities and its (hitherto) comparatively low degree of human
    impact make a biodiversity approach and a comparison with other areas
    particularly worth while. Current knowledge seems to indicate that there is no
    common pattern for species richness in the various Antarctic subsystems (e.g.
    pelagic/benthic, shallow/deep) or for different taxonomic groups. Some
    assemblages appear to be fairly rich in species, others consist of only a few,
    and the same pattern applies to the various taxa at a higher taxonomic level.
    The Antarctic marine ecosystem as a whole seems to have a lower percentage of
    species known to date in most higher taxa than would be expected from its share
    of the area of the world’s oceans. However, comparison with other marine
    ecosystems is difficult because of differences in area, environment, sampling
    and processing, and taxonomic knowledge. Comparison with the Arctic Ocean
    indicates that species numbers of most groups are much higher in Antarctic
    waters, but many more comparable data are needed to judge whether this also
    holds generally true for diversity, and whether large-scale latitudinal
    gradients exist for more than a few groups. Few authors have calculated
    diversity and evenness indices, and these, too, are often of very limited
    comparability. High species numbers do not necessarily imply high values of
    diversity and evenness.},
  isbn = {0-521-48033-7},

  author = {Arrigo, KR},
  editor = {Thomas, DN and Dieckmann, GS},
  chapter = {Primary production in sea ice},
  title = {Sea ice - an introduction to its physics, chemistry, biology and geology},
  year = {2003},
  publisher = {Blackwell Science Ltd},
  address = {Oxford},
  pages = {143--183},
  keywords = {Sea Ice},
  isbn = {0-632-05808-0},
  editor = {Mura, T.},
  title = {Mathematical Theory of Dislocations},
  booktitle = {Mathematical Theory of Dislocations},
  publisher = {ASME},
  address = {New York},
  year = {1969},

  title = {Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams},
  publisher = {ASM International},
  year = {1990},
  author = {Massalski, T. B. and Okamoto, H. and Subramanian, P. R. and Kacprzak, L.},
  address = {Materials Park},

  author = {Dyakonov, AM},
  title = {Ophiuroids of the USSR seas},
  series = {Keys to the Fauna of the USSR},
  year = {1954},
  publisher = {Zoological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR},
  address = {Moscow},
  volume = {55},
  keywords = {echinoderms},
  keywords = {ophiuroids},

  author = {Fuller, Christian B.},
  title = {Temporal Evolution of the Microstructures of Al(Sc,Zr) Alloys and Their Influences on Mechanical Properties},
  school = {Northwestern University},
  year = {2003},

  author = {Steffens, M.
    and Granskog, M.A.
    and Kaartokallio, H.
    and Kuosa, H.
    and Luodekari, K.
    and Papadimitriou, S.
    and Thomas, D.N.},
  title = {Spatial variation of biogeochemical properties of landfast sea ice in the Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Sea},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Symposium on Sea Ice, Dunedin (New Zealand), 5-9 Dec 2005},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {44},
  series = {Annals of Glaciology},
  pages = {80--87},
  publisher = {International Glaciological Society},
  address = {Cambridge},