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PMID- 16905428
DA  - 20060814
DCOM- 20061102
LR  - 20061115
PUBM- Print
IS  - 0065-2881 (Print)
VI  - 51
DP  - 2006
TI  - Crustacea in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice: distribution, diet and life
      history strategies.
PG  - 197-315
AB  - This review concerns crustaceans that associate with sea ice. Particular
      emphasis is placed on comparing and contrasting the Arctic and Antarctic
      sea ice habitats, and the subsequent influence of these environments on
      the life history strategies of the crustacean fauna. Sea ice is the
      dominant feature of both polar marine ecosystems, playing a central role
      in physical processes and providing an essential habitat for organisms
      ranging in size from viruses to whales. Similarities between the Arctic
      and Antarctic marine ecosystems include variable cover of sea ice over an
      annual cycle, a light regimen that can extend from months of total
      darkness to months of continuous light and a pronounced seasonality in
      primary production. Although there are many similarities, there are also
      major differences between the two regions: The Antarctic experiences
      greater seasonal change in its sea ice extent, much of the ice is over
      very deep water and more than 80% breaks out each year. In contrast,
      Arctic sea ice often covers comparatively shallow water, doubles in its
      extent on an annual cycle and the ice may persist for several decades.
      Crustaceans, particularly copepods and amphipods, are abundant in the sea
      ice zone at both poles, either living within the brine channel system of
      the ice-crystal matrix or inhabiting the ice-water interface. Many species
      associate with ice for only a part of their life cycle, while others
      appear entirely dependent upon it for reproduction and development.
      Although similarities exist between the two faunas, many differences are
      emerging. Most notable are the much higher abundance and biomass of
      Antarctic copepods, the dominance of the Antarctic sea ice copepod fauna
      by calanoids, the high euphausiid biomass in Southern Ocean waters and the
      lack of any species that appear fully dependent on the ice. In the Arctic,
      the ice-associated fauna is dominated by amphipods. Calanoid copepods are
      not tightly associated with the ice, while harpacticoids and cyclopoids
      are abundant. Euphausiids are nearly absent from the high Arctic. Life
      history strategies are variable, although reproductive cycles and life
      spans are generally longer than those for temperate congeners. Species at
      both poles tend to be opportunistic feeders and periods of diapause or
      other reductions in metabolic expenditure are not uncommon.
AD  - School of Zoology, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.
FAU - Arndt, Carolin E
AU  - Arndt CE
FAU - Swadling, Kerrie M
AU  - Swadling KM
LA  - eng
PT  - Comparative Study 
PT  - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 
PT  - Journal Article
PL  - United States
TA  - Adv Mar Biol
JT  - Advances in marine biology
JID - 0370431
SB  - IM
MH  - Animals
MH  - Antarctic Regions
MH  - Arctic Regions
MH  - Behavior, Animal/physiology
MH  - Biodiversity
MH  - Biomass
MH  - Crustacea/*classification/*physiology
MH  - Demography
MH  - Diet/veterinary
MH  - *Environment
MH  - *Ice
MH  - Oceans and Seas
MH  - Reproduction/physiology
MH  - Seawater
EDAT- 2006/08/15 09:00
MHDA- 2006/11/03 09:00
AID - S0065-2881(06)51004-1 [pii]
AID - 10.1016/S0065-2881(06)51004-1 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO  - Adv Mar Biol. 2006;51:197-315.

PMID- 16351846
DA  - 20051214
DCOM- 20060123
PUBM- Print
IS  - 0944-2006 (Print)
VI  - 104
IP  - 3-4
DP  - 2001
TI  - Seasonal adaptations and the role of lipids in oceanic zooplankton.
PG  - 313-26
AB  - Oceanic zooplankton species exhibit quite diverse life history traits. A
      major driving force determining their life strategies is the seasonal
      variability in food supply, which is most pronounced in polar oceans where
      fluctuations in primary production are extreme. Seasonal adaptations are
      closely related to the trophic level of zooplankters, with strongest
      pressures occurring on herbivorous organisms. The dominant grazers,
      calanoid copepods and krill (Euphausiacea), have developed fascinating
      solutions for successful overwintering at higher latitudes. They usually
      exhibit a very efficient storage and utilization of energy reserves to
      reduce the effect of a highly seasonal primary production. The predominant
      larger Calanus species from the Arctic and Calanoides acutus from the
      Antarctic biosynthesize large amounts of high-energy wax esters with
      long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids and alcohols (20:1 and 22:1
      isomers) as major components. They survive the dark season at depth in a
      stage of dormancy called diapause. In contrast, the Antarctic Calanus
      propinquus, a winter-active species, synthesizes primarily
      triacylglycerols, which are dominated by long-chain monounsaturated fatty
      acids with 22 carbon atoms (2 isomers) and yield even higher calorific
      contents. The omnivorous and carnivorous species, which are less subjected
      to seasonal food shortage, usually do not exhibit such an elaborate lipid
      biosynthesis. Herbivores usually do not utilize much of their enormous
      lipid reserves for overwintering, but channel this energy towards
      reproductive processes in late winter/early spring. Timing of reproduction
      is critical especially at high latitudes due to the short production
      period, and lipid reserves ensure early spawning independent of external
      resources. These energetic adaptations (dormancy, lipid storage) are
      supplemented by other life strategies such as extensive vertical
      migrations, change in the mode of life, and trophic flexibility.
AD  - Marine Zoology, University of Bremen, Germany.
FAU - Hagen, W
AU  - Hagen W
FAU - Auel, H
AU  - Auel H
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
PL  - Germany
TA  - Zoology (Jena)
JT  - Zoology (Jena, Germany)
JID - 9435608
EDAT- 2005/12/15 09:00
MHDA- 2005/12/15 09:01
AID - S0944-2006(04)70036-7 [pii]
AID - 10.1078/0944-2006-00037 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO  - Zoology (Jena). 2001;104(3-4):313-26.

PMID- 12171649
DA  - 20020812
DCOM- 20030227
LR  - 20061115
PUBM- Print
IS  - 0962-8436 (Print)
VI  - 357
IP  - 1423
DP  - 2002 Jul 29
TI  - Survival mechanisms in Antarctic lakes.
PG  - 863-9
AB  - In Antarctic lakes, organisms are confronted by continuous low
      temperatures as well as a poor light climate and nutrient limitation. Such
      extreme environments support truncated food webs with no fish, few
      metazoans and a dominance of microbial plankton. The key to success lies
      in entering the short Antarctic summer with actively growing populations.
      In many cases, the most successful organisms continue to function
      throughout the year. The few crustacean zooplankton remain active in the
      winter months, surviving on endogenous energy reserves and, in some cases,
      continuing development. Among the Protozoa, mixotrophy is an important
      nutritional strategy. In the extreme lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys,
      planktonic cryptophytes are forced to sustain a mixotrophic strategy and
      cannot survive by photosynthesis alone. The dependence on ingesting
      bacteria varies seasonally and with depth in the water column. In the
      Vestfold Hills, Pyramimonas, which dominates the plankton of some of the
      saline lakes, also resorts to mixotrophy, but does become entirely
      photosynthetic at mid-summer. Mixotrophic ciliates are also common and the
      entirely photosynthetic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum has a widespread
      distribution in the saline lakes of the Vestfold Hills, where it attains
      high concentrations. Bacteria continue to grow all year, showing cycles
      that appear to be related to the availability of dissolved organic carbon.
      In saline lakes, bacteria experience sub-zero temperatures for long
      periods of the year and have developed biochemical adaptations that
      include anti-freeze proteins, changes in the concentrations of
      polyunsaturated fatty acids in their membranes and suites of
      low-temperature enzymes.
AD  - School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Nottingham,
      University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK.
FAU - Laybourn-Parry, Johanna
AU  - Laybourn-Parry J
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
PT  - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 
PT  - Review
PL  - England
TA  - Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
JT  - Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B,
      Biological sciences
JID - 7503623
SB  - IM
MH  - *Acclimatization
MH  - Animals
MH  - Antarctic Regions
MH  - Bacteria/*metabolism
MH  - *Cold Climate
MH  - Fresh Water/*microbiology/*parasitology
MH  - Photosynthesis
MH  - Survival Rate
MH  - Zooplankton/metabolism/*physiology
RF  - 63
EDAT- 2002/08/13 10:00
MHDA- 2003/02/28 04:00
AID - 10.1098/rstb.2002.1075 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO  - Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2002 Jul 29;357(1423):863-9.

PMID- 12154613
DA  - 20020805
DCOM- 20021114
LR  - 20061115
PUBM- Print
IS  - 0065-2881 (Print)
VI  - 43
DP  - 2002
TI  - Ecology of southern ocean pack ice.
PG  - 171-276
AB  - Around Antarctica the annual five-fold growth and decay of sea ice is the
      most prominent physical process and has a profound impact on marine life
      there. In winter the pack ice canopy extends to cover almost 20 million
      square kilometres--some 8% of the southern hemisphere and an area larger
      than the Antarctic continent itself (13.2 million square kilometres)--and
      is one of the largest, most dynamic ecosystems on earth. Biological
      activity is associated with all physical components of the sea-ice system:
      the sea-ice surface; the internal sea-ice matrix and brine channel system;
      the underside of sea ice and the waters in the vicinity of sea ice that
      are modified by the presence of sea ice. Microbial and microalgal
      communities proliferate on and within sea ice and are grazed by a wide
      range of proto- and macrozooplankton that inhabit the sea ice in large
      concentrations. Grazing organisms also exploit biogenic material released
      from the sea ice at ice break-up or melt. Although rates of primary
      production in the underlying water column are often low because of shading
      by sea-ice cover, sea ice itself forms a substratum that provides standing
      stocks of bacteria, algae and grazers significantly higher than those in
      ice-free areas. Decay of sea ice in summer releases particulate and
      dissolved organic matter to the water column, playing a major role in
      biogeochemical cycling as well as seeding water column phytoplankton
      blooms. Numerous zooplankton species graze sea-ice algae, benefiting
      additionally because the overlying sea-ice ceiling provides a refuge from
      surface predators. Sea ice is an important nursery habitat for Antarctic
      krill, the pivotal species in the Southern Ocean marine ecosystem. Some
      deep-water fish migrate to shallow depths beneath sea ice to exploit the
      elevated concentrations of some zooplankton there. The increased secondary
      production associated with pack ice and the sea-ice edge is exploited by
      many higher predators, with seals, seabirds and whales aggregating there.
      As a result, much of the Southern Ocean pelagic whaling was concentrated
      at the edge of the marginal ice zone. The extent and duration of sea ice
      fluctuate periodically under the influence of global climatic phenomena
      including the El Nino Southern Oscillation. Life cycles of some associated
      species may reflect this periodicity. With evidence for climatic warming
      in some regions of Antarctica, there is concern that ecosystem change may
      be induced by changes in sea-ice extent. The relative abundance of krill
      and salps appears to change interannually with sea-ice extent, and in warm
      years, when salps proliferate, krill are scarce and dependent predators
      suffer severely. Further research on the Southern Ocean sea-ice system is
      required, not only to further our basic understanding of the ecology, but
      also to provide ecosystem managers with the information necessary for the
      development of strategies in response to short- and medium-term
      environmental changes in Antarctica. Technological advances are delivering
      new sampling platforms such as autonomous underwater vehicles that are
      improving vastly our ability to sample the Antarctic under sea-ice
      environment. Data from such platforms will enhance greatly our
      understanding of the globally important Southern Ocean sea-ice ecosystem.
AD  - Gatty Marine Laboratory, School of Biology, University of St Andrews,
      Fife, KY16 8LB, UK.
FAU - Brierley, Andrew S
AU  - Brierley AS
FAU - Thomas, David N
AU  - Thomas DN
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
PT  - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 
PT  - Review
PL  - United States
TA  - Adv Mar Biol
JT  - Advances in marine biology
JID - 0370431
SB  - IM
MH  - Animals
MH  - Antarctic Regions
MH  - Birds
MH  - Crustacea
MH  - Ecology
MH  - *Ecosystem
MH  - Environment
MH  - Fishes
MH  - *Ice
MH  - *Marine Biology
MH  - Oceans and Seas
MH  - Phytoplankton
MH  - Population Dynamics
MH  - Seasons
MH  - *Seawater
MH  - Water Microbiology
MH  - Whales
RF  - 327
EDAT- 2002/08/06 10:00
MHDA- 2002/11/26 04:00
PST - ppublish
SO  - Adv Mar Biol. 2002;43:171-276.

PMID- 9037040
DA  - 19970327
DCOM- 19970327
LR  - 20061115
PUBM- Print
IS  - 0027-8424 (Print)
VI  - 94
IP  - 4
DP  - 1997 Feb 18
TI  - Solar UVB-induced DNA damage and photoenzymatic DNA repair in antarctic
PG  - 1258-63
AB  - The detrimental effects of elevated intensities of mid-UV radiation (UVB),
      a result of stratospheric ozone depletion during the austral spring, on
      the primary producers of the Antarctic marine ecosystem have been well
      documented. Here we report that natural populations of Antarctic
      zooplankton also sustain significant DNA damage [measured as cyclobutane
      pyrimidine dimers (CPDs)] during periods of increased UVB flux. This is
      the first direct evidence that increased solar UVB may result in damage to
      marine organisms other than primary producers in Antarctica. The extent of
      DNA damage in pelagic icefish eggs correlated with daily incident UVB
      irradiance, reflecting the difference between acquisition and repair of
      CPDs. Patterns of DNA damage in fish larvae did not correlate with daily
      UVB flux, possibly due to different depth distributions and/or different
      capacities for DNA repair. Clearance of CPDs by Antarctic fish and krill
      was mediated primarily by the photoenzymatic repair system. Although
      repair rates were large for all species evaluated, they were apparently
      inadequate to prevent the transient accumulation of substantial CPD
      burdens. The capacity for DNA repair in Antarctic organisms was highest in
      those species whose early life history stages occupy the water column
      during periods of ozone depletion (austral spring) and lowest in fish
      species whose eggs and larvae are abundant during winter. Although the
      potential reduction in fitness of Antarctic zooplankton resulting from DNA
      damage is unknown, we suggest that increased solar UV may reduce
      recruitment and adversely affect trophic transfer of productivity by
      affecting heterotrophic species as well as primary producers.
AD  - Department of Biology, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
FAU - Malloy, K D
AU  - Malloy KD
FAU - Holman, M A
AU  - Holman MA
FAU - Mitchell, D
AU  - Mitchell D
FAU - Detrich, H W 3rd
AU  - Detrich HW 3rd
LA  - eng
PT  - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 
PT  - Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 
PT  - Journal Article
TA  - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
JT  - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of
JID - 7505876
RN  - 0 (Pyrimidine Dimers)
RN  - 10028-15-6 (Ozone)
RN  - EC (Deoxyribodipyrimidine Photo-Lyase)
SB  - IM
MH  - Animals
MH  - Antarctic Regions
MH  - *Atmosphere
MH  - *DNA Damage
MH  - *DNA Repair
MH  - Deoxyribodipyrimidine Photo-Lyase/metabolism
MH  - Fishes
MH  - Marine Biology
MH  - Ovum/radiation effects
MH  - *Ozone
MH  - Pyrimidine Dimers/analysis
MH  - Seasons
MH  - Temperature
MH  - Ultraviolet Rays/*adverse effects
MH  - Zooplankton/enzymology/*radiation effects
EDAT- 1997/02/18
MHDA- 2001/03/28 10:01
PST - ppublish
SO  - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Feb 18;94(4):1258-63.